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California court holds bees are covered by state Endangered Species Act – JURIST

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A California appeals court held Tuesday that four bumblebee species can be added to the state’s endangered species list under the California Endangered Species Act (CESA). The court found that bees fell under the statutory definition of “fish” in the law, since they are both a type of invertebrate animal species. CESA is an environmental law charged with conserving and protecting endangered plant and animal species in California. . CESA allows the California Fish and Game Commission to list certain plant and animal species as endangered, entitling those species to special protection. The species that can be included in CESA are included in the definition section of the law where the term “fish” is included, the term at the center of Tuesday’s decision. Under the law, “fish” is defined as “wild fish, mollusc, crustacean, invertebrate, amphibian, or part, spawn, or ovum of any such animal.” The legal dispute began in 2019 when the California Fish and Game Commission attempted to list four bumblebee species (Crotch, Franklin, Suckley, and Western) as endangered species, which the commission tried to do by claiming that bees were invertebrates. , which were covered by the law’s definition of fish Major agricultural groups filed a lawsuit, alleging that the addition of these four species violated the commission’s legal duty and was a clear violation of CESA Among the groups were producers of almonds, citrus and cotton. At the trial level, the judge ruled in favor of the agricultural groups. The court determined that CESA was not enacted with the intention of categorically protecting invertebrates. As a result, the commission was ordered to rescind its inclusion in the list of the four species of bumblebees as in danger of extinction.However, after the appeal, the Court of Appeals of the Third Dis The California State Court of Appeals reversed the trial court’s decision. The appeals court determined that CESA’s definition of “fish” is a technical term, not limited solely to aquatic species. Based on legislative history and textual analysis, the court said that terrestrial invertebrates, such as the four disputed bumblebee species, are covered by the law and may be classified as endangered. With the decision in place, the commission is now free to put all four species back on the endangered species list.

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UN Fact Finding Mission reports serious human rights violations in Libya – JURIST

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The UN Independent Fact Finding Mission (IFFM) on Libya reported Wednesday that Libyan authorities have committed crimes against humanity, war crimes and serious human rights violations under international law. The FFM was formed in June 2020 to document human rights violations in Libya and to ensure that those responsible are held accountable. FFM conducted 103 interviews with victims and witnesses during its investigation. FFM documented 27 places of detention in the eastern and western parts of Libya and reported that migrants were subjected to the “systematic use of prolonged arbitrary detention”, including the detention of thousands of migrants in secret and extra-legal prisons. The report highlights the atrocities of women facing sexual violence by human smugglers and smugglers for extorting money from their families and documents more cases of rape in places of detention or captivity in which migrant women are forced to have sex. to survive, in exchange for food or other essential goods. articles.FFM with the use of UNOSAT satellite image-based analysis documented the atrocities during the reign of the Al-Kaniyat militia in Tarhuna, Tripolitania region, and reported the discovery of new uncovered mass graves.Mohammad Aujjar, president of the FFM He said: The mission calls on the international community to support the relevant Libyan authorities in conducting prompt investigations, in accordance with international standards, into the alleged violations and bringing those responsible to justice. The goal is to end the prevailing impunity in the face of clear and persistent patterns of serious human rights violations, in many cases perpetrated by militia groups… Now more than ever, the Libyan people need a strong commitment to help bring peace and justice to his country, and establish a state based on the rule of law and human rights. The FFM published its first report on Libya in October 2022, and then published a follow-up report in March 2022.

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Two more charged for the death of 53 migrants in Texas – JURIST

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US authorities on Wednesday charged two additional suspects in the deaths of several dozen immigrants whose bodies were discovered in a truck in San Antonio, Texas, on Monday. These latest charges are in addition to charges filed Tuesday against two men suspected of involvement in the incident. The San Antonio Police Department discovered a truck carrying about 100 immigrants across the border on Monday. Piles of bodies were found inside the truck with the remaining victims collapsed next to it. In total, 39 men and 12 women died in the incident. Charges were filed Wednesday against the alleged truck driver, Homero Zamorano, as well as an alleged co-conspirator, Christian Martinez. Zamorano was charged with one count of alien smuggling resulting in death, while Martinez was charged with a single count of conspiracy to transport illegal immigrants. Given the incident’s status as the deadliest migrant smuggling incident on record in the United States, the US Department of Justice announced that if the defendants are convicted, they will face life in prison or capital punishment. Due to the incident, Republican Texas Governor Greg Abbott told reporters at a Wednesday news conference that the state will immediately begin additional truck checkpoints like the one found in San Antonio to prevent a recurrence. a similar tragedy.

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Columbia Truth Commission publishes final report on six decades of conflict – JURIST

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The Commission for the Clarification of Truth, Coexistence and Non-Repetition (Truth Commission) of Colombia presented its final report on the prolonged Colombian conflict on Wednesday, reporting that approximately 450,664 people were killed in a period of almost six decades. The Truth Commission was established by a peace agreement (2016) between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). It was established to document human rights abuses and highlight the causes of the conflict. The 900-page report included 30,000 interviews with people ranging from soldiers to five former Colombian presidents. The report states that the consequences of the conflict are “massive and intolerable” and that the non-combatant civilian population, especially the ethnic population, was the most affected during the conflict. The report also highlights that “of every ten people killed violently in the armed conflict-eight were civilians”, and documents that the number of disappeared is around 121,768, which represents 90% of civilian casualties. The statistics highlighted in the report indicate that 50,000 people were kidnapped between 1990 and 2018; More than 7 million people fled their homes; 34,000 children were forcibly recruited by the guerrillas; and 56,000 civilians were killed by the Colombian armed forces, including 6,300 people killed in remote areas. The Truth Commission recognized US financial support, recommended changing the framework of Colombia’s armed and police forces, and advised authorities to reassess military targets. The report also suggested separating the National Police from the Ministry of Defense. Furthermore, the report urged the Colombian government to repeal its militarized approach to drug policy and reformulate drug policy in coordination with the US and create a new framework to move from a prohibitionist perspective towards legal regulation. Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, supported the Truth Commission report and said: I want to pay tribute to the Colombian Truth Commission at a historic moment by presenting its final report today. I would also like to pay tribute to the victims, whose courage and persistence were the basis for the creation of the Commission… The work of the Truth Commission has highlighted the causes of the conflict and exposed its painful reality. Without truth, reconciliation is not possible. Without reconciliation, the risk of repetition remains real.

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